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Fifere, M. Spulber, N. Marangoci, N. Pinteala, V. Harabagiu and B. Simionescu Contents Cellulose modification by crosslinking with siloxane diacids Pages G. Simionescu Contents Synthesis of new hydrogels based on xanthan and cellulose allomorphs Pages Diana Ciolacu and Maria Cazacu Contents Carboxymethylation of guar gum: synthesis and characterization Pages G. Dodi, D. Hritcu and M. Popa Contents Inclusion compounds of monochlorotriazinyl-B-cyclodextrin grafted on a paper support Pages Ana-Maria Grigoriu, Constantin Luca, Narcisa Vrinceanu and Florin Ciolacu Contents Polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan with dextran sulphate.
Popa Contents Transformation of polyphenols from biomass by some yeast species Pages Anca-Roxana Hainal, Ioana Ignat, Irina Volf and Valentin I. Popa Contents Nanoparticles based on modified lignins with biocide properties Pages Valentin I. Popa, Adina-Mirela Capraru, Silvia Grama and Teodor Malutan Contents Agents for wood bioprotection based on natural aromatic compounds and their complexes with copper and zinc Pages Iulian-Andrei Gilca, Adina-Mirela Capraru, Silvia Grama and Valentin I.
Popa Contents Lignin blends with polyurethane-containing lactate segments. Properties and enzymatic degradation effects Pages L. Ignat, M. Ignat, E. Stoica, C. Ciobanu and V. Popa Contents Minimizing cellulase biosynthesis from cellulase-free xylanase production with Streptomyces Spp. P using optimization by response surface methodology Pages Gigi Coman and Gabriela Bahrim Contents A comparative study on adsorption of gallic acid onto polymeric adsorbents with amine functional groups Pages Ioana Ignat, Violeta Neagu, Ion Bunia, Carmen Paduraru, Irina Volf and Valentin I.
Tyagi, Shalini Singh and Dharm Dutt Contents Environmentally sound vegetal fiber-polymer matrix composites Pages Adrian Catalin Puitel, Bogdan Marian Tofanica, Dan Gavrilescu and Puiu Valerica Petrea Contents Maize bran as a lowcost resource for Cu II ions removal Pages Lavinia Tofan, Carmen Paduraru and Irina Volf Contents Spruce bark extract as modulator in rape plant copper bioaccumulation Pages Alina Stingu, Irina Volf and Valentin I. Popa Contents Hyperaccumulation of cadmium in maize plant Zea Mays Pages Alina Stingu, Irina Stanescu, Irina Volf and Valentin I.
Popa Contents Reduction of pollutants in paper mill effluents by aquatic plants Pages A. Vidyarthi, Dharm Dutt and J. Gasson, Ingvar Eide, Ann-Mari Hilmen and Tanja Barth Contents Amorphous cellulose - structure and characterization Pages Diana Ciolacu, Florin Ciolacu And Valentin I. Chen, D. Berk, R. Berry And G. Kubes Contents Adsorption of hemicellulose extracts from hardwood onto cellulosic fibers.
Effects of adsorption and optimization factors Pages Weiping Ban and Adriaan Van Heiningen Contents Organosolv pulping of wheat straw by glycerol Pages E. Saberikhah, J. Mohammadi Rovshandeh and P. Rezayati-Charani Contents Anthraquinone-aided hydrogen peroxide reinforced oxygen delignification of oil palm Elaeis guineensis EFB pulp: A two-level factorial design Pages Soo Huey Ng, Arniza Ghazali and Cheu Peng Leh Contents Selectiveness and efficiency of combined peracetic acid and chlorine dioxide bleaching stage for kraft pulp in removing hexeuronic acid Pages Daniel Tavast, Elisabeth Brannvall, Mikael E.
Lindstrom and Gunnar Henriksson Contents Effects of different consolidation additives on ageing behaviour of archived document paper Pages E. Ardelean, E. Bobu, Gh. Niculescu and C. Groza Contents Chitosan as cationic polyelectrolyte in wet-end papermaking systems Pages Raluca Nicu, Elena Bobu and Jacques Desbrieres Contents Analytical investigation of airflow patterns within a papermaking machine hall Pages Nikola Tanasic, Goran Jankes and Hakon Skistad Contents Bioethanol obtained from wooden biomass.
Faul Contents Potential benefits of recovered paper sorting by advanced technology Pages Elena Bobu, Alina Iosip and Florin Ciolacu Contents Morphological characterisation of pulps to control paper properties Pages Ana Moral, M. Felissia Fernando, E. Maria Vallejos and M. Cristina Area Contents A method for measuring pulping liquor penetration into wood structure Pages D. Chen, J. Zhao, D. Berry and G. Kubes Contents Chemical and thermogravimetric analysis and soda and organosolv pulping of Hesperaloe funifera Pages R.
Rodriguez, A. Requejo, A.
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Garcia and L. Haghi Contents Thermal degradation of lignin - A review Pages M. Brebu and C. Mungiu, Bogdan Stoica and Cornelia Vasile Contents In-situ cellulose fibres loading with calcium carbonate precipitated by different methods Pages Maria Ciobanu, Elena Bobu and Florin Ciolacu Contents Effect of velocity gradient on papermaking properties Pages Juraj Gigac and Maria Fiserova Contents Surfactant-chitosan interactions and application to emulsion stabilization Pages J. Desbrieres, C. Bousquet and V. Babak Contents Evaluation of coated paper quality using a Plackett-Burman statistical design Pages Sanjay Tyagi and A.
Sanchez, M. Eugenio, R. Yanez and L. Jimenez Contents Relationship between fibre characteristics and tensile strength of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps Pages Maria Fiserova, Juraj Gigac and Jozef Balbercak Contents Highly reactive cotton linters from refining of prehydrolysed AQ-soda pulp Pages Nahed A. Abd El-Ghany Contents Kraft pulp oxidation and its influence on recycling characteristics of fibres Pages Xianliang Song and Kwei-Nam Law Contents Efficiency and effluent characteristics from Mg OH 2-based peroxide bleaching of high-yield pulps and deinked pulp Pages Celine Leduc, Joannie Martel and Claude Daneault Contents Effects of Fenton system on recycled unbleached pulp in absence and presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid Pages P.
Mocchiutti, M. Galvan and M. Zanuttini Contents Application of computer image analysis for characterization of various papermaking pulps Pages Dariusz Danielewicz and Barbara Surma-Slusarska Contents Hydrolysis of Tilia japonica wood for production of a fermentable substrate Pages Takuya Yamaguchi and Masakazu Aoyama Contents Superiority of lithium bromide over lithium chloride used as flame retardants on cotton substrates Pages S.
Mostashari and S. Rakkolainen, M. Iakovlev, A-L. Terasvuori, E. Sklavounos, G. Jurgens, T. Granstrom and A. Van Heiningen Contents Effect of acid and enzymatic treatments of TCF dissolving pulp on the properties of wet spun cellulosic fibres Pages Marianna Vehvilainen, Taina Kamppuri, Pertti Nousiainen, Anne Kallioinen, Matti Siika-Aho, Kristina Elg Christoffersson, Monika Rom and Jaroslav Janicki Contents Hemicelluloses extraction from giant bamboo prior to kraft and soda AQ pulping to produce paper pulps, value-added biopolymers and bioethanol Pages P.
Vena, J. F Gorgens and T. Rypstra Contents The use of ionic liquids in the pretreatment of forest and agricultura residues for the production of bioethanol Pages R. Pezoa, V. Cortinez, S. Hyvarinen, M. Reunanen, J. Hemming, M. E Lienqueo, O. Salazar, R. Carmona, A. Garcia, D. Murzin and J. Rabinovich Contents Towards ionic liquid fractionation of lignocellulosics for fermentable sugars Pages S.
Hyvarinen, P. Virtanen, D. Mikkola Contents Ultrapyrolysis of wood biomass for production of ecologically clean boiler fuels and motor fuels Pages A. Spitsyn, Y. Pilshchikov, V. Piyalkin, H. Mettee and V. Shirshikov Contents Levoglucosan transformation over aluminosilicates Pages M.
Kaldstrom, N. Kumar, T. Salmi and D. Goundalkar, Biljana Bujanovic, Thomas E. Amidon Contents Multifunctional alkaline pulping. Damlin, J. Mikkola and T. Salmi Contents Dilute sulphuric acid and ethanol organosol pretreatment of Miscanthus x Giganteus Pages Nicolas Brosse, Roland El Hage, Poulomi Sannigrahi and Arthur Ragauskas Contents Pyrolitic behaviour of cellulose in a fluidized bed reactor Pages D. Shen and S. Gu Contents Catalytic deoxygenation of cellulose pyrolysis vapours over mesoporous materials Pages Aho, M.
Kaldstrom, P. Fardim, N. Kumar, K. Eranen, T. Salmi, B. Holmbon, M. Hupa and D. Popa Contents Contribution to the modification and characterization of different types of lignin Pages Adina-Mirela Capraru, Valentin I. Popa, Teodor Malutan and Gabriela Lisa Contents Organosolv pulping of cotton linters Pages Nahed A. Abd El-Ghany Contents Influence of gall ink composition on thermal stability of paper Pages Marta Ursescu, Gabriela Lisa, Corina Malutan and Sorin Ciovica Contents Aromatherapeutic characteristics of cotton fabrics treated with rosemary essential oil Pages A.
Butnaru Contents Application of a low-level, uniform ultrasound field for the acceleration of enzymatic bio-processing of cotton Pages Brian Condon, Michael Easson, Val Yachmenev, Allan Lambert Chri S Delhom and Jade Smith Contents Thermogravimetry of deposited ammonium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate used as flame-retardant for cotton fabrics Pages S.
Popa Contents Ethanol-water fractionation of sugar cane bagasse catalyzed with acids Pages Cristina M. Area, Fernando E.
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Felissia and Maria E. Vallejos Contents Influence of the cooking conditions on the properties of first-thinning scots pine Pinus sylvestris kraft pulp Pages Riika Rautiainen and Raimo Alen Contents Delignification of Aleppo pine wood Pinus halepensis Mill by soda-anthraquinone process: pulp and paper characteristics Pages Ahmed Haddad, Dominique Lachenal, Alain Marechal, Gerard Janin and Mohamed Labiod Contents Ethanol and soda pulping of tagasaste wood: Neural fuzzy modeling Pages Ascension Alfaro, Antonio Perez, Juan C.
Garcia, Francisco Lopez, Minerva A. Zamudio and Alejandro Rodriguez Contents Modelling of displacement washing of pulp: comparison between model and experimental data Pages Shelly Arora and Frantisek Potucek Contents Comparative kinetic analysis of a laccase-mediator system treatment of pulp after oxygen delignification and chlorine dioxide bleaching Pages G. Radeva, I. Valchev and E. Valcheva Contents Substitution of sodium hydroxide with magnesium hydroxide as an alkali source in the peroxide bleaching of softwood TMP Pages Huiren Hu and Hongjie Zhang Contents Pre-treatment of oil palm biomass for alkaline peroxide pulping Pages A.
Ghazali, W. Wan Rosli and K. Law Contents The superiority of hydrated zinc and nickel versus hydrated sodium sulfate in the flame-retardancy of cellulosic fabrics Pages S. Mostashari, O. Baghi and H. But by the early 20 th century, such leaps were few and far between. By this stage, the productive forces had far outgrown the market; the imperialist nations could expand no further without re-dividing up the world. Thus began a period of two world wars, with the Great Depression in-between. It is notable that the main development in technology and innovation from this period came not from capitalism and the competition of the free market, but from the state control over industry and the planning that capitalist nations were forced to adopt for the purposes of war.
Nationalisation and public control of the key sectors of research and development were introduced in the advanced capitalist countries during the Second World War in order to innovate and develop new technologies.
1. GENERAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES.
Aircraft, plastics, synthetic rubber, medicines, telecommunications, nuclear energy, etc. Suddenly, whole nations, whose industrial base had been flattened during the war, were given Marshall Aid from the USA — which came out of the war greatly strengthened with its industry and economy almost untouched — and were able to import and implement the most modern industrial methods, providing a great leap forward in terms of productivity. This, the tremendous qualitative development of the productive forces as a result of state control and planning during the war, and not the Keynesian policies of the reformists, was the real secret behind the post-war boom.
This is not to mention the important research that takes place in universities — publically funded and nominally not for profit, although big business is increasingly dictating research agendas. During the same interwar period, whilst capitalism was experiencing its greatest crisis in history, the planned economy in the Soviet Union, despite all the deformations introduced by the cancerous fetter of the Stalinist bureaucracy, was developing at lightning speed, going from being a backward, mainly peasant-based economy before the Revolution to putting the first man in space 44 years later.
What this all demonstrates is that, for almost a century now, the motor force of innovation has not been capitalist competition, but planning and public ownership. Capitalism, far from developing science and technology, has become an enormous fetter on the development of the productive forces. Private ownership over the means of production has become a gigantic barrier to innovation and ingenuity and must be replaced by a plan of production under the democratic control of society itself.
All of this slowdown in productivity has occurred despite tremendous technological advances, most notably the introduction of personal computers, mobile phones, and the internet. It is the latter that matters when it comes to actual increases in productivity and economic growth. Today there is innovation everywhere, but the actual impact of this on society is not dramatic. As The Economist points out, whilst great advances have been made in some areas, in many respects society is still the same today as it was 40 years ago: domestic lifestyles are largely unchanged; we still travel around on the same trains, planes, and automobiles; and average life expectancy in the US has risen by less than five years since , compared to a rise of 25 years between the turn of the 20 th Century and There are more people today involved in research and development than ever before, and yet it is estimated that technology and innovation contribute seven times less towards growth than in Again, it is the existence of private ownership, not only over the material means of production, but also over the ideas and knowledge generated by society i.
Rather than co-operating and sharing knowledge to produce the best phone possible, companies such as Apple and Samsung instead embroil themselves in an endless series of legal cases over the infringement of various patents. Rather than investing in education and applying the most modern techniques in the advanced industrial countries, the capitalists instead take advantage of the abundant supply of cheap labour in Asia and elsewhere; or simply choose to speculate parasitically in the financial markets.
And rather than employing the most advanced production techniques, such as 3D printers, which have the potential to provide another industrial revolution, such technologies are held back for fear of exacerbating the already existing excess capacity — i. Why invest in real production when there is already excess capacity and when you could make billions on the stock exchange or in various financial derivatives instead?
It should be noted that for many years, growth in China was largely of the extensive kind, fuelled by a move from agriculture to industry, with millions migrating from the countryside to the city, and by the importing of modern production techniques from abroad via joint-ventures between Chinese state-owned enterprises and multinational firms.
Nowadays, there has been genuine innovation in China think of companies such as Huawei and Lenovo and investment in greater automation as Chinese workers become increasingly militant and more organised, demanding and winning wage increases and better conditions. The increasingly parasitic nature of capitalism and the use of off-shoring in terms of industry have not helped innovation and technology.
On the one hand, they have created greater inequality everywhere, with profits accumulating in the hands of the big multinationals at one end and with an ever more impoverished working class at the other. But on the other, they have also helped to create the largest and most interconnected working class that has ever existed. As The Economist 25 th May comments:. There is an even greater chance that it will continue to widen inequalities. It is not, as many on the Right would have us believe, foreigners or immigrants who are taking our jobs — it is the machines!
Such fears of mass unemployment due to technological progress, however, are nothing new, as economist Michael Stewart discusses back in In the same way, in the s, semi-skilled car workers are being put out of business by robots This means unemployment due to our discovery of means of economising the use of labour outrunning the pace at which we can find new uses for labour.
Many workers, in short, are losing the race against the machine How can technologies accelerate while incomes stagnate? In other words, improved technology and increased productivity, rather than raising living standards, have actually lowered them for the vast majority, creating stagnant wages and permanent structural unemployment. As Brynjolfsson and McAfee point out:. The other four-fifths of the population saw a net decrease in wealth over nearly 30 years Instead, the stagnation of median incomes primarily reflects a fundamental change in how the economy apportions income and wealth.
The median worker is losing the race against the machine. The problem is not technology, but the application of technology under capitalism. Marx long ago explained how the laws of capitalism — the anarchic competition between capitalists for greater profits — force each capitalist to try and reduce their costs, in order to sell at a lower price, by increasing productivity through the replacement of labour with machinery.
That is, they impel him to raise the productivity of a given quantity of labour, to reduce the proportion of variable capital [wages] to constant [machinery, tools, equipment, raw materials, etc. It is, therefore, not technology itself, but the use of technology under capitalism, implemented in an anarchic and unplanned way, which leads to mass unemployment, and which in turn places pressure on those still in work to accept lower wages, as competition for the remaining jobs increases.
Thus arises the contradiction in which mass unemployment can sit side-by-side with millions who must work hours per week or take multiple jobs just in order to scrape by:. The condemnation of one part of the working class to enforced idleness by the over-work of the other part, and vice versa , becomes a means of enriching the individual capitalists, and accelerates at the same time the production of the industrial reserve army on a scale corresponding with the progress of social accumulation.
Capitalism is unable to use the human resources available, and instead consigns millions to forced idleness. Big business refuses to invest and factories, shops, and offices lie empty, all because of the already existing excess capacity — i. In addition, capitalism cannot even use the knowledge and technology that society has discovered and invented over millennia of history: innovation is not realised in any practical application because of the private ownership over ideas themselves, whilst new technologies are not introduced for fear of the further excess capacity, unemployment, and fall in demand that they would generate.
Under capitalism, the individual capitalist introduces technology and improves productivity in order to increase their own individual profit, without any regard for the living standards of workers or the needs of society. Under socialism, the anarchy of competition and the market would be replaced by a rational plan of production, allowing technology to be introduced, and productivity to be raised. Man and the machine could co-exist in harmony rather than in competition. Rather than generating the contradiction of unemployment alongside extreme toil, work could be shared out equally and the hours of the working day could be reduced for all, with further investment and improvement leading to an ever increasing amount of leisure time.
We see, once again, that it is not technology that is the source of social ills, but the capitalist system itself, and the enormous barrier to progress that this system imposes due to private ownership and production for profit. But how can these two separate tendencies amongst bourgeois economists and commentators exist side-by-side? How can there be both too much innovation and technology, and yet apparently also too little? With commodities unable to be sold, the crisis of overproduction reveals itself and production stops.
In the next section 1. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and recording of data about a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the most time on.
If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere.
Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless Nissenbaum This ease of access has the result of also making the relationship one has to one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of that data.
If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated.
Who has the final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not?
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Who is allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy? For instance Alan Westin argued in the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the key to maintaining privacy Westin It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to the individual.
Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of us gains from the services of internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.
This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the service. If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the information about oneself that is produced each day.
If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot Tavani and Moor Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information Tavani and Moor Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the communication and access of user information.
If we grant the control of our information to third parties in exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for restricting the access to that information by others who might use it to harm us see Epstein ; Magnani ; Tavani With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and larceny.
The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. This has led to the design of computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems.
The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in the fact that security is antithetical to the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the early builders of information technology.
Capitalism and growth
So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior Adams ; Grodzinsky and Tavani Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the moral commitments of the designers of these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values Brey ; Bynum ; Ess ; Johnson ; Magnani ; Moor ; Spinello ; Sullins Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is useful and accurate.
If you use a number of different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of these searches will vary from one another.
The Relationship of Morality and Technology
This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to one location on the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of trust.
Again the anonymity and ease of use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the impact that the access to information has on social justice. Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. But even today the benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics.
Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by their own governments. John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in giving and taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies Weckert In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the organizing of information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on new information.
Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics Wiener . Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the Human Use of Human Beings Wiener Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to be proactive and guide the technology in ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and machines Bynum Machines make decisions that have moral impacts.
One of the authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to help.
Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to pay for insurance, etc. For instance if you apply for a credit card the machine will look for certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc.
The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on complex logic and mathematics see for example Russell and Norvig , this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way Sullins It all depends on the design of the learning and prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret.
Several of the issues raised above result from the moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of quick and low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also. Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises.
The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote:. In fall , at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time.
Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to be at the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for the foreseeable future. In the section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.